The Strait of Hormuz is the world’s most important waterway. From the very beginning of the world. The nations that have long considered themselves superpowers all over the world have a clear common denominator. Their navy was very strong and powerful, whether it was Greek, Roman, or Islamic. The United States, which built the world’s first aircraft carrier in 1911. Before Britain and then before World War I.
When the United States entered the war at the end of World War I. It began to receive the title of superpower from Britain that year because of its strong navy. And then before World War II. The United States became the only superpower in the world. In the Cold War, when the former Soviet Union also became a nuclear power. A superpower balance emerged, which the United States regained after 1990. And now, 31 years later, in the economic arena, compared to the United States. The number one challenge has become China and Russia in military technology. While the combined military power of both is slightly higher than that of the United States.
With economic and defense or military power. The United States has long had close ties with Britain, France, Australia, Israel, and other NATO nations. The lineup is like the Cold War era. In this context, over the years. The South China Sea, the Gulf of Oman. And the Persian Gulf, especially the Strait of Hormuz, has become important.
The Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz are very close to Gwadar on the Makran coast of Pakistan. So the war activities here could be a cause of concern for Pakistan as well. There is a way. It is the world’s most strategically important waterway. It is 90 nautical miles or 167 km long and 21 nautical miles 39 km wide.
According to the research of CISIS (Center for Strategic and International Studies). A major American think tank based in Washington DC. Established in 1962 at the Center for Studies at Georgetown University. The Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz in 2007. The EIA (The US Energy Information Administration) is also a US agency that provides statistics. And information at the federal level in the United States, carrying 17 million barrels of oil per day.
Its primary responsibility is to gather and analyze data and information related to energy. And provide it to American policymakers and those working for better marketing. According to the EIA, an average of 14 oil tankers carried 17 million barrels of oil per day through the Persian Gulf. And the Strait of Hormuz in 2011. Accounting for 35% of the world’s total sea oil and 20% of the world’s oil trade. Eighty-five percent of this oil goes to the Asian market, namely Japan, India, the South to Riyadh, and China. While in 2018 21 million barrels of oil went daily from the Strait of Hormuz. With a total value of 1.17 percent as of September 2019. It was a billion a day.
Now as far as narrow sea passages are concerned. They are of two kinds, natural and artificial. The Strait or Waterway is a natural sea passage. While in this world Britain, France and the United States have two such artificial sea passages. One of which is the Suez Canal and the other the Panama Canal. The Suez Canal was built by France, Egypt, and Britain and opened in 1869. It connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea. 193 km long.
According to 2012 records, 17,225 ships passed through the Suez Canal. An average of 47 ships per day. The Panama Canal is 85 km long and connects the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. The United States then began building it in 1904 and opened it in 1912. Similarly, when it comes to the Gulf, it refers to an ocean that has land on three sides. The Strait of Hormuz, the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf. There are three countries around.
Number one is Iran with an area of 1648195 sq km. Its total length of land borders is 5894 km including 921 km length from Afghanistan. 44 km length from Armenia regular border 432 km from Azerbaijan, 179 km on the other side, Iraq. The border with Pakistan is 1599 km. The length of the border with Pakistan is 959 km The length of the border with Turkey is 534 km. And the length of the border with Turkmenistan is 1148 km. The total length of Iran’s coastline is 2815 km. The Caspian Sea in the north of Iran. The largest saltwater lake in the world with an area of 371,000 sq km, has a total length of 1,100 km on the Iranian coast. And a coastline of 1770 km on the Persian Gulf and Hormuz in the south. Is more
On the other side of the Gulf, in front of Iran, is Oman. Oman covers an area of 309,500 square kilometers. And its border with Saudi Arabia is 676 kilometers long. The length of Oman’s border with UAE is 410 km and the length of Oman’s border with Yemen is 288 km. While the total length of Oman’s coast on the Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf and Hormuz is 3165 km. The UAE has an area of 83,600 square kilometers. On land, it has a total border length of 867 km, which joins Saudi Arabia and Oman. A few islands and ports on and near the Strait of Hormuz are also of special importance. Hormuz Island is located in the Persian Gulf, 8 km off the coast of Iran. And 610 feet above sea level. Its area is 42 km. Is part of the Iranian province of Homsgan.
There are red mountain cliffs that make beautiful views at sunrise and sunset. In the Persian Gulf, on the Strait of Hormuz, there is an important. And the large island of Qashm in Iran with an area of 1491 square kilometers. The island is 135 km long and 40 km wide. Its population is 148,993. While a large number of them are Shiites. Although Chabahar is an Iranian port on the Arabian Sea near Pakistan. Iran’s largest port on the Persian Gulf is Bandar. Abbas is also the provincial capital of Hormozgan Province. 90% of Iran’s sea trade goes through this port.
It is also an Iranian naval base and Iran’s largest military base. Opposite it is Oman and Muscat, and at the corner where Oman borders the United Arab Emirates is Khasab Khasab. A small but beautiful coastal city in the Sultanate of Oman. The city is called the Norway of Muscat because of its beauty. The mountains are beautiful, people from all over Oman come here for recreation. And there are fewer locals and more Indians. Pakistanis and Bangladeshis work here, while the major ports in the UAE are in Dubai. Are The Cold War began shortly after World War II. And in its early years, especially as long as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria had monarchies, Iraq, Iran, Turkey.
Then in the years to come, when the former Soviet Union stood up to the United States. And first overthrew General Najib and Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser Shah Farooq in Egypt. And when Colonel Nasser became president, he nationalized the Suez Canal. It was attacked by France, Britain and Israel. Shortly afterward, a revolution took place in Iraq and the government was overthrown. And Iraq, Britain, and the United States came out of the Soviet Union’s sphere of influence. But the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman, and the Strait of Hormuz survived. Shah Pahlavi, who not only recognized Israel but was an American soldier. And guardian here, but immediately after the 1979-80 revolution in Iran. Iran-US relations turned from friendship to enmity.
And the United States and Britain probably had no objection to it at the time. But when the Iraq-Iran war continued from September 22, 1980, to August 20, 1988. The Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman. And especially the threat of danger to the Strait of Hormuz. Although the United Nations agency. The IMO, has maritime traffic laws that do not allow ships to be stopped or disrupted in international waters. In view of the new situation. The island of Kharg Island located 483 kilometers northwest of the Strait of Hormuz. 25 kilometers off the Iranian coast in the Persian Gulf.
Here Iraq targeted Iranian oil tankers, also known as the Tanker War. Iraqi President Saddam Hussein believed that Iran would close the Strait of Hormuz in this way. And that the United States would intervene here and that Iraq would benefit from the war. But Iran maintained its war strategy. Iran also targeted Iraqi oil tankers but did not allow the Strait of Hormuz to close. The corridor was open to international trade during the Iraq-Iran war in accordance with UN rules.
Operation Praying Mantis Operation Praying Mantis was a US military strike in Iranian waters. In the Persian Gulf on April 18, 1988, in response to a landmine planted by Iran. In the Persian Gulf that killed an American ship. The US commanders in the battle were Anthony Les, Raymond G. Zolra and James B. Perkin, and Mohammad Hussein was from Malaysia. Two US soldiers were killed and one helicopter was destroyed in the fighting. Which killed 56 Iranian soldiers and destroyed six ships, leaving the United States in the lead. The incident of Iranian Airlines Flight 665 took place on July 3, 1988. The Iranian Airlines Airbus A300 passenger plane was en route to Tehran via Bandar Abbas Debi. All 290 people on board were killed. The plane was shot down in Iranian waters in the Persian Gulf.
The incident took place during the eight-year Iraq-Iran war. The plane crashed near the island of Qashm in the Strait of Hormuz. After the plane crashed, the US Navy said it had carried out the operation in self-defense. Because it suspected it was being attacked. Will The Iranian people and government expressed their grief and anger over this. The matter was settled in the International Court of Justice. In 1996 between the governments of Iran and the United States.
Although the United States has not officially apologized to Iran. It has agreed to pay 61 61.8 million in damages to the affected Iranian family. On January 8, 2007, a US nuclear submarine. The NeuroPureNews, collided with a 300,000-ton Japanese oil tanker. The MV Mogamigaawa, in the Strait of Hormuz. Some oil leaked from the oil tanker. In 2008, a sharp crisis erupted between Iranian and US forces. In the Strait of Hormuz for several days as Iranian speedboats circled U.S warships. And made sharp statements against each other.
On June 29, 2008, the commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards. Mohammad Ali Jafari made it clear that if the United States or Israel invaded Iran. Iran would close the Strait of Hormuz and thus create a crisis in the world oil market. Vice Admiral Kevin Csgriff of the US Fifth Fleet in Bahrain. We would consider it a war and the US would send Iran. It will not allow it to cut off a third of the world’s oil supplies.
On July 8, 2008, Iranian spokesman Ali Shirazi quoted Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khomeini. As saying that Zionist Jews were urging the United States to invade Iran. And that if the United States did such a foolish thing. Iran would Israeli ships will be targeted. On August 11, 2008, the United States conducted a large-scale naval exercise with Japan. In which 40 American warships participated. On March 20, 2009, two US warships were deployed in the Strait of Hormuz. The planes collided, injuring 15 Americans and sinking about 25,000 gallons of diesel into the sea.
In the days that followed, although the US Navy remained close to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. No major incidents occurred. But US economic and trade sanctions against Iran began to increase. On December 27, 2011, in response, Iranian Vice President Mohammad Reza Rahimi. Threatened to cut off oil supplies to the Strait of Hormuz if sanctions on Iran were not lifted. A spokesman for the US Fifth Fleet in the area immediately responded by saying that the US Navy was ready to respond.
However, the effects of this worrying situation were felt on the world oil market at that time. Even after December, the situation did not improve. On January 3, 2012, Iran’s army chief, Attaullah Salehi. Threatened to move its navy from the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman. Because Iran had to conduct military exercises there.
Otherwise, Iran could take action, to which the US Navy Commander Bill replied. That the US aircraft carrier was at sea in international waters. And would remain there under the United Nations Maritime Convention and would monitor it. So that the supply of oil. And the flow of ships from here will be ensured. But then the price of oil in the world market increased by 4%. Due to the new sanctions on Iran. Iranian oil exports decreased by 50% in 2012 and the reason for this. The currency also depreciated. But as China imported oil from Iran. The strategic importance of the Strait of Hormuz. As well as its foundations, led to an economic war, especially against Iran.
On the one hand, the United States, Israel, Britain, Franc. And other Western powers were pressuring Iran to refrain from conducting nuclear research. And allegedly developing nuclear weapons and on the other hand. Iran was adamant that its traditional Strengthen the grip.
As far as the traditional grip of Iran was concerned, after the First World War. Iran was no longer a strong and fully independent country. By the end of the First World War. The whole world had changed completely. With the fall of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey. The Middle East and other Arab countries, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Sudan, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Oman. Today’s the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, France in one way or another.
After the communist revolution of 1917 in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union had tightened its grip on Central Asia. So that Iran was also seemingly free and independent. But since the beginning of the Pahlavi dynasty. Iran has controlled many British affairs. One of the main reasons for this was that on the one hand. The former Soviet Union’s communist government was promoting communism all over the world.
Which made the traditional monarchies self-sufficient all over the world. And Britain, France, and The emerging superpowers sought help from the United States. Which at the time controlled the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Oman, and the Strait of Hormuz with the same major powers. And persisted until the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran. Since then, Britain, France, the United States. And other Western allies have been satisfied with the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia. And the Sultanate of Oman. But with the departure of Badshah from Iran. Iran has become an independent and fully independent country. As a strong country in the region, the policy is to prevent it from becoming stronger. And more powerful It is a priority for the United States and NATO.
In January 2012, when the situation was deteriorating as far as the Strait of Hormuz. The Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman near the Arabian Sea. And the US imposing more sanctions on Iran and creating a war-like atmosphere. The Iranian economy was weakening. As the currency depreciated, by the end of January 2012. France and Britain had also imposed economic sanctions. And frozen Iranian assets, with Britain, also building warships in the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Oman and the Strait. Announced the sending of Hormuz. Which caused the value of the Iranian currency to fall another 12%.
In January 2012, Iranian Defense Minister Ahmed Wahidi. Said that Iran had never claimed that it would close the Strait of Hormuz. While the Islamic Republic of Iran is the largest defender of the Persian Gulf and is threatened by anyone. If the situation worsens then everyone will be in danger. The Iranian Defense Minister mentioned the importance of Iran. In the defense of the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz. Because of the land area of the coast and islands on the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz. And on the same basis, the sea area is also the largest area of Iran.
On January 16, 2012, the Iranian foreign minister confirmed. That he had received a letter from the United States. Expressing concern that Iran’s move to close the Strait of Hormuz was considered a red line. Will do and respond immediately.
“The United States cannot ignore this issue,” said Leon E. Panatta. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Secretary of Defense, in Texas. On January 23, 2012, Iran threatened to close the Strait of Hormuz. In the Persian Gulf sent shockwaves through the world. And it became clear that Iran was taking extreme measures to defend its economy and its country. Intends to do Thus, the countries whose ships were feared to be stopped at Hormuz. Also sent their warships to the Persian Gulf. And the United States delivered more warships here. On January 24, 2012, the European Union also sent its warships to the Persian Gulf. Thus, there were fears of a major war. But Iran did not show any provocation and worked very patiently.
This is a time when the United States, Britain and other NATO forces were active in the Middle East. And Russia was engaged in successful attempts to take over. The Ukraine-Russia conflict had escalated. And China was gaining more economic power. Later, reconciliation talks with Iran began in the United States. And efforts were made with President Barack Obama by the European Union and the United Nations. Including the United Kingdom, to ensure that Iran would provide this assurance. And guarantee to these important countries, including the United States.
If it does not build a nuclear weapon under its nuclear program. Then the economic and other sanctions imposed on Iran will be lifted and on this occasion. The accusations from Israel were ignored and meanwhile the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman. And the situation in the Strait of Hormuz improved a bit. And the war crisis almost ended here. Then on July 14, 2015 in Vienna a nuclear arms settlement. An agreement was reached with Iran which is the JCPOA-Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. The agreement was called “Comprehensive Joint Action” by the United Nations. In addition to the five permanent members of the Security Council. The veto, Britain, France, the United States, Russia and China, as well as Germany and the European Union.
This agreement came into force on 18 October 2015, ie its implementation began. But Israel was against it, and their position was that Iran was developing nuclear weapons. So no agreement should be made with it, but an agreement was reached. After this agreement, Iran’s currency began to stabilize and Iran’s economy Somewhat satisfied. Now the hope was that the lifting of sanctions on Iran would end. Iran’s problems and enable Iran to provide better facilities to its people. Which would make the one-party government more popular in Iran.
Iran’s stance against the United States has not been particularly aggressive. Especially in the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz. Iran has pursued its foreign policy in a very balanced and independent manner. But only after President Obama has completed his second term. So when Donald Trump became President of the United States, his clear inclination was towards Israel from the beginning. And from the very beginning of his presidency, propaganda began to be expressed by the United States as an expression of concern over Iran’s nuclear program. Despite opposition from Germany, China, Europe. And other countries, US President Trump withdrew the JCPOA from the nuclear deal with Iran and resumed sanctions on Iran.
This defamation has really damaged America’s reputation internationally. Although Germany and other EU countries tried hard to convince President Trump that such agreements do not happen on a daily basis. It was almost impossible for Iran to break such an agreement. Because not only the EU was involved but also The five United Nations veto powers were the United States, Russia, China, France and the United Kingdom. But President Trump withdrew the treaty, And soon after it began to feel as if there would be a regular war between the United States and Iran.
Tensions in the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz then escalated. In 2018, when President Donald Trump was about to withdraw from the JCPOA. Iran threatened to close the Strait of Hormuz. And for that, the Iranian Revolutionary Guards were ordered to be ready. But the threat was not carried out. However, Iran demonstrated its strength by launching modern surface-to-air missiles up to 100 miles into the Iranian desert. Successfully tested
In April 2019, despite restrictions on Iran’s oil exports. Some countries were allowed to buy oil from Iran. On June 13, 2019, an oil tanker was shelled. Which was blamed on Iran and Iran denied it. Following the incident from Gibraltar to the Gulf of Oman. The Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz to the United States, Britain and France. The warships came to the sea and this continued till 2020. In May 2020, Iran fired a missile at a ship in friendly fire, killing 19 soldiers.
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Based on Iran’s intervention in Iraq and Syria from the end of 2019 and the beginning of 2020. President Donald Trump decided to take action against Iran here and implement it. The special order of President Donald Trump. Major General Qasim Soleimani and Abu Mehdi, both commanders of the revolution, were killed in a missile attack. On which Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khomeini announced his revenge on the US military. And the US deployed 4,000 US troops here. This tense situation continued until January 21, 2021.
In the November 2020 US presidential election, Biden was elected the new president of the United States. A staunch opponent of Trump’s policies. And from the very beginning of his presidency in the White House. He called on Iran to re-enforce the JCPOA and assess the situation accordingly. Announced and asked Iran to keep its nuclear program at the level agreed upon. But Iran responded by saying that the United States should lift sanctions. on Iran in accordance with the first agreement. The United States did not lift sanctions on Iran until March 28, 2021. Under which China will invest 400 400 billion in Iran over the next 25 years.
Although the US president has respected the wishes of the European Union. And the rest of the veto powers, including Germany, which had earlier asked. President Trump not to withdraw a major international agreement such as the JCPOA. If US President Joe Biden, according to his statement. Really lifted the sanctions on Iran in the near future while abiding by the agreement. Perhaps Iran would take something from the negotiating table. He could have come to the position but now after the agreement with China, the situation is different.
It is also feared that Iran will become an undeclared nuclear power like South Korea and Israel. that is, it will refuse to have nuclear weapons like Israel. But it will also have nuclear weapons like Israel. In the case of the Strait of Hormuz. Could become a line of danger for a threat that could engulf the entire world.